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Title: Flow-Fine Sediment Hysteresis in Sediment-Stratified Coastal Waters
Authors: Costa, R.
Issue Date: 1989
Publisher: ******
Series/Report no.: MSc Thesis
Abstract: An examination of the causes for generation and dynamics of turbidity maxima in estuaries reveals the critical role of sediment tidal pumping phenomenon and, to a lesser extent, of the well-known effect of residual gravitational circulation due to salt water penetration. Both phenomena depend on the vertical sediment concentration profile and, consequently, on the magnitude of the vertical mass transport fluxes. Where high concentration suspensions occur regularly, the erosion/deposition fluxes can be drastically modified by sediment stratification, consequently influencing sus¬pended sediment response to currents and wave action. This influence is inherent in flow-sediment hysteresis, which therefore reflects the role of vertical mass transport in the estuarine and coastal suspended fine sediment regime. A vertical transport numerical model was used to investigate the influence of several key parameters describing sediment settling, bed properties and stabilized diffusion on the concentration profile. The model was also applied to simulate the influence of the same parameters on the time-lagged sediment response to flow variations, reflected in the characteristics of flow-sediment hysteresis loops. Field data obtained in Hangzhou Bay (People´s Republic of China), a high concentration environment, showed typical features of flow-sediment hysteresis and confirmed the importance of the vertical mass fluxes in contributing to sediment transport in the bay. A qualitative simulation provided by the numerical model, using settling parameters corresponding to local sediment, while confirming the importance of the hysteresis phenomenon, also revealed the critical need to use algorithms describing adequately stabilized diffusion and bed fluxes. Additional evidence of hysteresis was obtained through analysis of microscale variables, such as the Reynolds stresses and the variances of the velocity components resulting from combined effects of wave action and turbulence. Spectral analysis of the measured random variations did not support the commonly accepted hypothesis of similarity between the responses to turbulent flow of sediment concentration and temperature. The normalized turbulent intensities for all the measured veloc¬ity components showed their highest values during the period of lowest sediment concentration; this result is consistent with the hypothesis of turbulent intensity damping by suspended sediment.
Description: Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC
Appears in Collections:DHA/NEC - Programas de Investigação, Teses e Trabalhos de Síntese

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