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Title: An update on wastewater multi-resistant bacteria: Identification of clinical pathogens such as Escherichia coli O25b:H4-B2-ST131-producing CTX-M-15 ESBL and KPC-3 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella oxytoca
Authors: Mesquita, E.
Ribeiro, R.
Silva, C.J.C.
Alves, R.
Baptista, R.
Condinho, S.
Rosa, M. J.
Perdigão, J.
Caneiras, C.
Duarte, A.
Keywords: Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP);CTX-M-15;SED-1;ESBL;KPC-3 carbapenemase;Klebsiella oxytoca;Ochromobactrum intermedium;Citrobacter farmeri;Portugal
Issue Date: Mar-2021
Publisher: MDPI
Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are significant reservoirs of bacterial resistance. This work aims to identify the determinants of resistance produced by Gram-negative bacteria in the influent and effluent of two WWTPs in Portugal. A total of 96 wastewater samples were obtained between 2016 and 2019. The numbers of total aerobic and fecal contamination bacteria were evaluated, and genomic features were searched by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Enterobacteriaceae corresponded to 78.6% (n = 161) of the 205 isolates identified by 16sRNA. The most frequent isolates were Escherichia spp. (57.1%, n = 117), followed by Aeromonas spp. (16.1%, n = 33) and Klebsiella spp. (12.7%, n = 26). The remaining 29 isolates (14.1%) were distributed across 10 different genera. Among the 183 resistant genes de-tected, 54 isolates produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), of which blaCTX-M-15 was pre-dominant (37 isolates; 68.5%). A KPC-3 carbapenemase-producing K. oxytoca was identified (n = 1), with blaKPC-3 included in a transposon Tn4401 isoform b. A higher number of virulence genes (VG) (19 genes) was found in the E. coli 5301 (O25b-ST131-B2) isolate compared with a commensal E. coli 5281 (O25b-ST410-A) (six genes). Both shared five VG [Enterobactin; Aerobactin, CFA/1 (clade α); Type1 (clade γ1); Type IV]. In conclusion, this work highlights the role of relevant clinical bacteria in WWTPs, such as KPC-3-producing K. oxytoca, and, for the first time, a CTX-M-15-producing Ochromobactrum intermedium, a human opportunistic pathogen, and a SED-1-producing Citrobacter farmeri, an uncommon CTX-M-type extended-spectrum be-ta-lactamase.
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